# 1 Introduction

This User Manual documents jpylyzer, a validator and feature extractor for JP2 images. JP2 is the still image format that is defined by JPEG 2000 Part 1 (ISO/IEC 15444-1). Jpylyzer was specifically created to answer the following questions that you might have about any JP2 file:

1. Is this really a JP2 and does it really conform to the format's specifications (validation)?

2. What are the technical characteristics of this image (feature extraction)?

## 1.2 Validation: scope and restrictions

Since the word ‘validation’ means different things to different people, a few words about the overall scope of jpylyzer. First of all, it is important to stress that jpylyzer is not a ‘one stop solution’ that will tell you that an image is 100% perfect. What jpylyzer does is this: based on the JP2 format specification (ISO/IEC 15444-1), it parses a file. It then subjects the file’s contents to a large number of tests, each of which is based on the requirements and restrictions that are defined by the standard. If a file fails one or more tests, this implies that it does not conform to the standard, and is no valid JP2. Importantly, this presumes that jpylyzer’s tests accurately reflect the format specification, without producing false positives.

### 1.2.1 ‘Valid’ means ‘probably valid’

If a file passes all tests, this is an indication that it is probably valid JP2. This (intentionally) implies a certain degree of remaining uncertainty, which is related to the following.

First of all, jpylyzer (or any other format validator for that matter) ‘validates’ a file by trying to prove that it does not conform to the standard. It cannot prove that that a file does conform to the standard.

Related to this, even though jpylyzer’s validation process is very comprehensive, it is not complete. For instance, the validation of JPEG 2000 codestreams at this moment is still somewhat limited. Section 7.2 discusses these limitations in detail. Some of these limitations (e.g. optional codestream segment markers that are only minimally supported at this stage) may be taken away in upcoming versions of the tool.

### 1.2.2 No check on compressed bitstreams

One important limitation that most certainly will not be addressed in any upcoming versions is that jpylyzer does not analyse the data in the compressed bitstream segments. Doing so would involve decoding the whole image, and this is completely out of jpylyzer’s scope. As a result, it is possible that a JP2 that passes each of jpylyzer’s tests will nevertheless fail to render correctly in a viewer application.

### 1.2.3 Recommendations for use in quality assurance workflows

Because of the foregoing, a thorough JP2 quality assurance workflow should not rely on jpylyzer (or any other format validator) alone, but it should include other tests as well. Some obvious examples are:

• A rendering test that checks if a file renders at all

• Format migration workflows (e.g. TIFF to JP2) should ideally also include some comparison between source and destination images (e.g. a pixel-wise comparison)

Conversely, an image that successfully passes a rendering test or pixel-wise comparison may still contain problematic features (e.g. incorrect colour space information), so validation, rendering tests and pixel-wise comparisons are really complementary to each other.

### 1.2.4 Note on ICC profile support

The support of ICC profiles in JP2 was recently extended through an amendment to the standard. These changes are taken into account by jpylyzer, which is in line with the most recent version of the (updated) standard.

## 1.3 Outline of this User Manual

Chapter 2 describes the installation process of jpylyzer for Windows and Unix-based systems. Chapter 3 explains the usage of jpylyzer as a command-line tool, or as an importable Python module. Chapter 4 gives a brief overview of the structure of JP2 and its ‘box’ structure. Jpylyzer’s output format is explained in chapter 5. The final chapters give a detailed description of the tests that jpylyzer performs for validation, and its reported properties. Chapter 6 does this for all ‘boxes’, except for the ‘Contiguous Codestream’ box, which is given a Chapter (7) of its own.

## 1.4 Funding

http://www.scape-project.eu/

Jpylyzer is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this program. If not, see:

On Debian systems, the complete text of the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 can be found in:

``/usr/share/common-licenses/LGPL-3``

# 2 Installation and set-up

## 2.1 Obtaining the software

http://jpylyzer.openpreservation.org/

You have three options:

1. Install the software with the Pip package manager. This works on all platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac, etc.), but you need to have the Python interpreter available on your system. Jpylyzer is compatible with Python 2.7, and Python 3.2 and more recent (Python 3.0 and 3.1 are not supported).

2. Alternatively, for Windows users there is also a set of stand-alone binaries1. These allow you to run jpylyzer as an executable Windows application, without any need for installing Python. This option is particularly useful for Windows users who cannot (or don’t want to) install software on their system.

3. For Linux users Debian packages are available. These allow you to run jpylyzer without any need for installing Python.

These options are described in the following sections.

## 2.2 Installation with Pip (Linux/Unix, Windows, Mac OS X)

### 2.2.1 General installation procedure

First make sure you have a recent version of pip. Then install jpylyzer with the following command:

``pip install jpylyzer``

### 2.2.2 Single user installation (Linux)

On most Linux systems the above command needs to be run as super user (see below). If you don't want this use the below command for a single-user install:

``pip install jpylyzer --user``

This will install the software to the `.local` folder (hidden by default!) in your home directory (`~/.local`). Next try to run jpylyzer by entering:

``jpylyzer``

Most likely this will result in:

``jpylyzer: command not found``

If this happens, add the directory `~/.local/bin` (which is where the jpylyzer command-line tool is installed) to the `PATH` environment variable (you only need to do this once). To do this, locate the (hidden) file `.profile` in you home directory (`~/`), and open it in a text editor. Then add the following lines at the end of the file:

``````# set PATH so it includes the user's .local bin if it exists
if [ -d "\$HOME/.local/bin" ] ; then
PATH="\$HOME/.local/bin:\$PATH"
fi``````

Save the file, log out of your session and then log in again. Open a command terminal and type:

`` jpylyzer``

If all went well you now see this:

``````usage: jpylyzer [-h] [--verbose] [--recurse] [--wrapper] [--nullxml]
[--nopretty] [--version]
jp2In [jp2In ...]
jpylyzer: error: the following arguments are required: jp2In``````

Which means that the installation was successful!

### 2.2.3 Global installation (Linux)

Simply enter:

``sudo -H pip install isolyzer``

No further configuration is needed in this case.

### 2.2.4 Note on pre-releases

The above command lines will only install stable versions of jpylyzer. In order to install the latest pre-release, add the `--pre` switch. For example:

``sudo -H pip install jpylyzer --pre``

## 2.3 Installation of Windows binaries (Windows only)

Download the binary using the link on the jpylyzer homepage. Unzip the contents of this file to an empty folder on your PC. Jpylyzer should now be ready for use.

### 2.3.1 Testing the installation

To test your installation, open a Command Prompt (‘DOS prompt’) and type:

``%jpylyzerPath%\jpylyzer``

In the above command, replace %jpylyzerPath% with the full path to the jpylyzer installation directory (i.e. the directory that contains ‘jpylyzer.exe’ and its associated files). For example, if you extracted the files to directory `c:\tools\jpylyzer`, the command would become:

``c:\tools\jpylyzer\jpylyzer``

Executing this command should result in the following screen output:

``````usage: jpylyzer [-h] [--verbose] [--recurse] [--wrapper] [--nullxml]
[--nopretty] [--version]
jp2In [jp2In ...]
jpylyzer: error: the following arguments are required: jp2In``````

### 2.3.2 Running jpylyzer without typing the full path

Optionally, you may also want to add the full path of the jpylyzer installation directory to the Windows ’Path’ environment variable. Doing so allows you to run jpylyzer from any directory on your PC without having to type the full path. In Windows 7 you can do this by selecting ‘settings’ from the ‘Start’ menu; then go to ‘control panel’/’system’ and go to the ‘advanced’ tab. Click on the ‘environment variables’ button. Finally, locate the ‘Path’ variable in the ‘system variables’ window, click on ‘Edit’ and add the full jpylyzer path (this requires local Administrator privileges). The settings take effect on any newly opened command prompt.

## 2.4 Installation of Debian packages (Ubuntu/Linux)

For a number of Linux architectures Debian packages of jpylyzer exist. To install, simply download the .deb file, double-click on it and select Install Package. Alternatively you can also do this in the command terminal by typing:

``sudo dpkg -i jpylyzer_1.13.0_i386.deb``

In both cases you need to have administrative privileges.

For Ubuntu and Debian alternative packages are available in the official release channels. To install simply run the following commands:

``````sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install python-jpylyzer``````

# 3 Using jpylyzer

## 3.1 Overview

This chapter describes the general use of jpylyzer. The first sections cover the use of jpylyzer as a command-line tool and as an importable Python module.

## 3.2 Command-line usage

This section explains jpylyzer’s general command-line interface. For the sake of brevity, all command-line examples assume the use of the Python script; moreover, full paths are omitted. This means that, depending on your system and settings, you may have to substitute each occurrence of ‘jpylyzer.py’ with its full path, the corresponding Windows binary, or a combination of both. The following examples illustrate this:

This User Manual jpylyzer.py
Substitution example Linux `/home/jpylyzer/jpylyzer.py`
Substitution example Windows binaries `c:\tools\jpylyzer\jpylyzer`

Furthermore, command line arguments that are given between square brackets (example: `[-h]`) are optional.

### 3.2.1 Synopsis

Jpylyzer can be invoked using the following command-line arguments:

``````usage: jpylyzer.py [-h] [--verbose] [--recurse] [--wrapper] [--nullxml]
[--nopretty] [--version] jp2In [jp2In ...]``````

With:

`jp2In`
input JP2 image(s)
`[-h, --help]`
show help message and exit
`[--verbose]`
report test results in verbose format
`[--recurse, -r]`
when analysing a directory, recurse into subdirectories (implies --wrapper)
`[--wrapper, -w]`
wraps the output for individual image(s) in 'results' XML element
`[--nullxml]`
extract null-terminated XML content from XML and UUID boxes(doesn't affect validation)
`[--nopretty]`
suppress pretty-printing of XML output
`[-v, --version]`
show program's version number and exit

Note that the input can either be a single image, a space-separated sequence of images, a pathname expression that includes multiple images, or any combination of the above. For example, the following command will process one single image:

``jpylyzer.py rubbish.jp2``

The next example shows how to process all files with a ‘jp2’ extension in the current directory:

``jpylyzer.py *.jp2``

Note that on Unix/Linux based systems pathname expressions may not work properly unless you wrap them in quotation marks:

``jpylyzer.py "*.jp2"``

### 3.2.2 Output redirection

All output (except warning and system error messages) is directed to the standard output device (stdout). By default this is the console screen. Use your platform’s standard output redirection operators to redirect output to a file. The most common situation will be to redirect the output of one invocation of jpylyzer to an XML file, which can be done with the ‘>’ operator (both under Windows and Linux):

``jpylyzer.py jp2In > outputFile``

E.g. the following command will run jpylyzer on image ‘rubbish.jp2’ and redirects the output to file ‘rubbish.xml’:

``jpylyzer.py rubbish.jp2 > rubbish.xml``

The format of the XML output is described in Chapter 5.

### 3.2.3 ‘recurse’ option

If the --recurse option is used, jpylyzer will recursively traverse all subdirectories of a filepath expression. E.g:

``jpylyzer.py /home/myJP2s/*.jp2 > rubbish.xml``

In this case jpylyzer analyses all files that have a .jp2 extension in directory /home/myJP2s and all its subdirectories.

### 3.2.4 Creating valid XML with multiple images

By default, jpylyzer creates a separate XML tree for each analysed image, without any overarching hierarchy. If you use a pathname expression to process multiple images and redirect the output to a file, the resulting file will not be a well-formed XML document. An example:

``jpylyzer.py rubbish.jp2 garbage.jp2 > rubbish.xml``

In this case, the output for these 2 images is redirected to ‘rubbish.xml’, but the file will be a succession of two XML trees, which by itself is not well-formed XML. Use the --wrapper option if you want to create valid XML instead:

``jpylyzer.py --wrapper rubbish.jp2 garbage.jp2 > rubbish.xml``

In the above case the XML trees of the individual images are wrapped inside a ‘results’ element. When the --recurse option is used, jpylyzer will automatically wrap the output in a ‘results’ element, so there's no need to specify --wrapper in that case.

### 3.2.5 ‘nullxml’ option

The nullxml option was added to enable extraction of XML content that is terminated by a null-byte. By default jpylyzer doesn’t report the XML in that case, because it throws an exception in the XML parser. Apparently some old versions of the Kakadu demo applications would erroneously add a null-byte to embedded XML, so this option can be used to force extraction for images that are affected by this.

### 3.2.6 User warnings

Under the following conditions jpylyzer will print a user warning to the standard error device (typically the console screen):

#### 3.2.6.1 No images to check

If there are no input images to check (typically because the value of jp2In refers to a non-existent file), the following warning message is shown:

``User warning: no images to check!``

#### 3.2.6.2 Unsupported box

In some cases you will see the following warning message:

``User warning: ignoring 'boxName' (validator function not yet implemented)``

The reason for this: a JP2 file is made up of units that are called ‘boxes’. This is explained in more detail in Chapter 4. Each ‘box’ has its own dedicated validator function. At this stage validator functions are still missing for a small number of (optional) boxes. Jpylyzer will display the above warning message if it encounters a (yet) unsupported box. Any unsupported boxes are simply ignored, and the remainder of the file will be analyzed (and validated) normally.

#### 3.2.6.3 Error while processing a file

In rare cases you may come across one of the following messages:

``User warning: memory error (file size too large)``

Memory errors may occur for (very) large images. If you get this warning, try using a machine with more RAM. Also, a machine's chip architecture and the operating system may put constraints on the amount of memory that can be allocated.

The following warning indicates an input error:

``User warning: I/O error (cannot open file)``

Finally, the following messages most likely indicate a jpylyzer bug:

``````User warning:runtime error (please report to developers)

User warning: unknown error (please report to developers)``````

If you ever run into either of these two errors, please get in touch with the jpylyzer developers. The easiest way to do this is to create a new issue at:

https://github.com/openpreserve/jpylyzer/issues

#### 3.2.6.4 Unknown box

Occasionally, you may see this warning message:

``User warning: ignoring unknown box``

This happens if jpylyzer encounters a box that is not defined by JPEG 2000 Part 1. It should be noted that, to a large extent, JPEG 2000 Part 1 permits the presence of boxes that are defined outside the standard. Again, jpylyzer will simply ignore these and process all other boxes normally.

## 3.3 Using jpylyzer as a Python module

Instead of using jpylyzer from the command-line, you can also import it as a module in your own Python programs. To do so, install jpylyzer with pip. Then import jpylyzer into your code by adding:

``from jpylyzer import jpylyzer``

Subsequently you can call any function that is defined in jpylyzer.py. In practice you will most likely only need the checkOneFile function. The following minimal script shows how this works:

``````#! /usr/bin/env python

from jpylyzer import jpylyzer

# Define JP2
myFile = "/home/johan/jpylyzer-test-files/aware.jp2"

# Analyse with jpylyzer, result to Element object
myResult = jpylyzer.checkOneFile(myFile)

# Return image height value
print(imageHeight)``````

Here, myResult is an Element object that can either be used directly, or converted to XML using the ElementTree module2. The structure of the element object follows the XML output that described in Chapter 5.

# 4 Structure of a JP2 file

## 4.1 Scope of this chapter

This chapter gives a brief overview of the JP2 file format. A basic understanding of the general structure of JP2 is helpful for appreciating how jpylyzer performs its validation. It will also make it easier to understand jpylyzer‘s extracted properties, as these are reported as a hierarchical tree that corresponds to the internal structure of JP2.

For an exhaustive description of every detail of the format you are advised to consult Annex I (‘JP2 file format syntax’) and Annex A (‘Codestream syntax’) of ISO/IEC 15444-1.

## 4.2 General format structure

At the highest level, a JP2 file is made up of a collection of boxes. A box can be thought of as the fundamental building block of the format. Some boxes (‘superboxes’) are containers for other boxes. The Figure below gives an overview of the top-level boxes in a JP2 file.

A number of things here are noteworthy to point out:

• Some of these boxes are required, whereas others (indicated with dashed lines in the Figure) are optional.

• The order in which the boxes appear in the file is subject to some constraints (e.g. the first box in a JP2 must always be a ‘Signature’ box, followed by a ‘File Type’ box).

• Some boxes may have multiple instances (e.g. ‘Contiguous Codestream’ box), whereas others must be unique (e.g. ‘JP2 Header’ box).

More specific details can be found in the standard. The important thing here is that requirements like the above are something that should be verified by a validator, and this is exactly what jpylyzer does at the highest level of its validation procedure.

## 4.3 General structure of a box

All boxes are defined by a generic binary structure, which is illustrated by the following Figure:

Most boxes are made up of the following three components:

1. A fixed-length ‘box length’ field that indicates the total size of the box (in bytes).

2. A fixed-length ‘box type’ field which specifies the type of information that can be found in this box

3. The box contents, which contains the actual information within the box. Its internal format depends on the box type. The box contents of a ‘superbox’ will contain its child boxes (which can be parsed recursively).

In some cases a box will also contain an ‘extended box length field’. This field is needed if the size of a box exceeds 232-1 bytes, which is the maximum value that can be stored in the 4-byte ‘box length’ field.

## 4.4 Defined boxes in JP2

The following Table (taken from Table I.2 in ISO/IEC 15444-1, with minor modifications) lists all boxes that are defined in the standard. Addition signs in the ‘box name’ column indicate boxes that are children of a ‘superbox’.

Box name Superbox Required? Purpose
JPEG 2000 Signature box No Required Identifies the file as being part of the JPEG 2000 family of files.
File Type box No Required Specifies file type, version and compatibility information, including specifying if this file is a conforming JP2 file or if it can be read by a conforming JP2 reader.
JP2 Header box Yes Required Contains a series of boxes that contain header-type information about the file.
+ Image Header box No Required Specifies the size of the image and other related fields.
+ Bits Per Component box No Optional Specifies the bit depth of the components in the file in cases where the bit depth is not constant across all components.
+ Colour Specification box No Required Specifies the colourspace of the image.
+ Palette box No Optional Specifies the palette which maps a single component in index space to a multiple-component image.
+ Component Mapping box No Optional Specifies the mapping between a palette and codestream components.
+ Channel Definition box No Optional Specifies the type and ordering of the components within the codestream, as well as those created by the application of a palette.
+ Resolution box Yes Optional Contains the grid resolution.
++ Capture Resolution box No Optional Specifies the grid resolution at which the image was captured.
++ Default Display Resolution box No Optional Specifies the default grid resolution at which the image should be displayed.
Contiguous Codestream box No Required Contains the codestream.
Intellectual Property box No Optional Contains intellectual property information about the image.
XML box No Optional Provides a tool by which vendors can add XML formatted information to a JP2 file.
UUID box No Optional Provides a tool by which vendors can add additional information to a file without risking conflict with other vendors.
UUID Info box Yes Optional Provides a tool by which a vendor may provide access to additional information associated with a UUID.
+ UUID List box No Optional Specifies a list of UUIDs.
+ URL box No Optional Specifies a URL.

A JP2 file may contain boxes that are not defined by the standard. Such boxes are simply skipped and ignored by conforming reader applications.

# 5 Output format

This chapter explains jpylyzer’s output format.

## 5.1 Overview

Jpylyzer generates its output in XML format, which is defined by the schema that can be found here. The following Figure shows the output structure:

The root element (jpylyzer) contains 5 child elements:

2. fileInfo: general information about the analysed file

3. statusInfo: information about the status of jpylyzer's validation attempt

4. isValidJP2: outcome of the validation

5. tests: outcome of the individual tests that are part of the validation process (organised by box)

6. properties: image properties (organised by box)

If jpylyzer is executed with the --wrapper option, the root element is results, which contains one or more jpylyzer elements which otherwise follow the above structure. From version 1.12 onward, the XML output is pretty-printed. You can use the --nopretty switch to disable pretty-printing (this produces smaller files and may give a slightly better performance).

## 5.2 toolInfo element

This element holds information about jpylyzer. Currently it contains the following sub-elements:

• toolName: name of the analysis tool (i.e. jpylyzer.py or jpylyzer, depending on whether the Python script or the Windows binaries were used)

• toolVersion: version of jpylyzer (jpylyzer uses a date versioning scheme)

## 5.3 fileInfo element

This element holds general information about the analysed file. Currently it contains the following sub-elements:

• filename: name of the analysed file without its path (e.g. “rubbish.jp2”)

• filePath: name of the analysed file, including its full absolute path (e.g. “d:\data\images\rubbish.jp2”)

• fileSizeInBytes: file size in bytes

## 5.4 statusInfo element

This element holds general information about about the status of jpylyzer's attempt at validating a file. It tells you whether the validation process could be completed without any internal jpylyzer errors. It contains the following sub-elements:

• success: a Boolean flag that indicates whether the validation attempt completed normally (“True”) or not (“False”). A value of “False” indicates an internal error that prevented jpylyzer from validating the file.

• failureMessage: if the validation attempt failed (value of success equals “False”), this field gives further details about the reason of the failure. Examples are:

``````memory error (file size too large)

runtime error (please report to developers)

unknown error (please report to developers)``````

## 5.5 isValidJP2 element

This element contains the results of the validation. If a file passed all the tests (i.e. all tests returned “True”, see section 5.5) it is most likely valid JP2, and the value of isValidJP2 will be “True”. Its value is “False” otherwise.

## 5.6 tests element

This element is reserved to hold the outcomes of all the individual tests that jpylyzer performs to assess whether a file is valid JP2. The results are organised in a hierarchical tree that corresponds to JP2’s box structure. Each individual test can have two values:

• “True” if a file passed the test.

• “False” if a file failed the test.

If a file passed all tests, this is an indication that it is most likely valid JP2. In that case, the isValidJP2 element (section 5.4) has a value of “True” (and “False” in all other cases). These tests are all explained in chapters 6 and 7.

### 5.6.1 Default and verbose reporting of test results

By default, jpylyzer only reports any tests that failed (i.e. returned “False”), including the corresponding part of the box structure. For a valid JP2 the tests element will be empty. If the --verbose flag is used, the results of all tests are included (including those that returned “True”)3.

## 5.7 properties element

This element contains the extracted image properties, which are organised in a hierarchical tree that corresponds to JP2’s box structure. See chapters 6 and 7 for a description of the reported properties.

# 6 JP2: box by box

The following two chapters provide a detailed explanation of jpylyzer’s functionality and its output. In particular, the following two aspects are addressed:

1. The reported properties

2. The tests that jpylyzer performs to establish the validity of a file.

## 6.1 About the properties and tests trees

The ‘properties’ element in jpylyzer’s output holds a hierarchical tree structure that contains all extracted properties. The ‘tests’ tree follows the same structure. The hierarchy reflects JP2’s box structure (explained in Chapter 4): each box is represented by a corresponding output element that contains the corresponding property entries. If a box is a superbox, the output element will contain child elements for each child box. For some boxes, the output contains further sub-elements. This applies in particular to the Contiguous Codestream box, since its contents are more complex than any of the other boxes. Also, if a Colour Specification box contains an embedded ICC profile, the properties of the ICC profile are stored in a separate sub-element. In addition to this, one ‘property’ that is reported by jpylyzer (the compression ratio) is not actually extracted from any particular box. Instead, it is calculated from the file size and some properties from the Header boxes. As a result, it is reported separately in the root of the properties tree.

### 6.1.1 Naming of properties

The naming of the reported properties largely follows the standard (ISO/IEC 15444-1). Some minor differences follow from the fact that the standard does have any consistent use of text case, whereas jpylyzer uses lower camel case. In addition, some parameters in the standard are compound units that aggregate a number of Boolean ‘switches’, where no names are provided for each individual switch. An example of this is the Scod (coding style) parameter in the codestream header, which contains three switches that define the use of precincts, start-of-packet markers and end-of-packet markers. For cases like these jpylyzer uses its own (largely self-descriptive) names (which are all documented in these chapters).

## 6.2 JPEG 2000 Signature box

This box contains information that allows identification of the file as being part of the JPEG 2000 family of file formats.

signatureBox

### 6.2.2 Reported properties

None (box only holds JPEG 2000 signature, which includes non-printable characters)

### 6.2.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box contents equals 4 bytes
signatureIsValid Signature equals 0x0d0a870a

## 6.3 File Type box

This box specifies file type, version and compatibility information, including specifying if this file is a conforming JP2 file or if it can be read by a conforming JP2 reader.

fileTypeBox

### 6.3.2 Reported properties

Property Description
br Brand
minV Minor version
cL* Compatibility field (repeatable)

### 6.3.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid (Size of box – 8) /4 is a whole number (integer)
brandIsValid br equals 0x6a703220 (“jp2 ”)
minorVersionIsValid minV equals 0
compatibilityListIsValid Sequence of compatibility (cL) fields includes one entry that equals 0x6a703220 (“jp2 ”)

## 6.4 JP2 Header box (superbox)

This box is a superbox that holds a series of boxes that contain header-type information about the file.

### 6.4.2 Reported properties

Since this is a superbox, it contains a number of child boxes. These are represented as child elements in the properties tree:

Child element Description
bitsPerComponentBox (section 6.6) Properties from Bits Per Component box (optional)
ColourSpecificationBox (section 6.7) Properties from Colour Specification box (required)
paletteBox (section 6.8) Properties from Palette box (optional)
componentMappingBox (section 6.9) Properties from Component Mapping box (optional)
channelDefinitionBox (section 6.10) Properties from Channel Definition box (optional)
resolutionBox (section 6.11) Properties from Resolution box (optional)

### 6.4.3 Tests

Test name True if
containsColourSpecificationBox Box contains required Colour Specification box
containsBitsPerComponentBox Box contains Bits Per Component Box, which is required if bPCSign and bPCDepth in Image Header Box equal 1 and 128, respectively (test is skipped otherwise)
noMoreThanOneBitsPerComponentBox Box contains no more than one Bits Per Component box
noMoreThanOnePaletteBox Box contains no more than one Palette box
noMoreThanOneComponentMappingBox Box contains no more than one Component Mapping box
noMoreThanOneChannelDefinitionBox Box contains no more than one Channel Definition box
noMoreThanOneResolutionBox Box contains no more than one Resolution box
colourSpecificationBoxesAreContiguous In case of multiple Colour Specification boxes, they appear contiguously in the JP2 Header box
paletteAndComponentMappingBoxesOnlyTogether Box contains a Palette box (only if Component Mapping box is present); box contains a Component Mapping box (only if Palette box is present)

This box specifies the size of the image and other related fields.

### 6.5.2 Reported properties

Property Description
height Image height in pixels
width Image width in pixels
nC Number of image components
bPCDepth Number of bits per component
c Compression type
unkC Colourspace Unknown field (“yes” if colourspace of image data is unknown; “no” otherwise)
iPR Intellectual Property field (“yes” if image contains intellectual property rights information; “no” otherwise)

### 6.5.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box contents equals 14 bytes
heightIsValid height is within range [1, 232 - 1]
widthIsValid width is within range [1, 232 - 1]
nCIsValid nC is within range [1, 16384]
bPCIsValid bPCDepth is within range [1,38] OR bPCSign equals 255 (in the latter case the bit depth is variable)
cIsValid c equals 7 (“jpeg2000”)
unkCIsValid unkC equals 0 (“no”) or 1 (“yes”)
iPRIsValid iPR equals 0 (“no”) or 1 (“yes”)

## 6.6 Bits Per Component box (child of JP2 Header box)

This (optional) box specifies the bit depth of the components in the file in cases where the bit depth is not constant across all components.

### 6.6.1 Element name

bitsPerComponentBox

### 6.6.2 Reported properties

Property Description
bPCSign* Indicates whether image component is signed or unsigned (repeated for each component)
bPCDepth* Number of bits for this component (repeated for each component)

### 6.6.3 Tests

Test name True if
bPCIsValid* bPCDepth is within range [1,38] (repeated for each component)

## 6.7 Colour Specification box (child of JP2 Header box)

This box specifies the colourspace of the image.

### 6.7.1 Element name

colourSpecificationBox

### 6.7.2 Reported properties

Property Description
meth Specification method. Indicates whether colourspace of this image is defined as an enumerated colourspace or using a (restricted) ICC profile.
prec Precedence
approx Colourspace approximation
enumCS (if meth equals “Enumerated”) Enumerated colourspace (as descriptive text string)
icc (if meth equals “Restricted ICC” or “Any ICC”4) Properties of ICC profile as child element (see below)

### 6.7.3 Reported properties of ICC profiles

If the colour specification box contains an embedded ICC profile, jpylyzer will also report the following properties (which are all grouped in an “icc” sub-element in the properties tree). An exhaustive explanation of these properties is given in the ICC specification (ISO 15076-1 / ICC.1:2004-10). Note that jpylyzer does not validate embedded ICC profiles (even though it does check if a specific ICC profile is allowed in JP2)!

Property Description
profileSize Size of ICC profile in bytes
preferredCMMType Preferred CMM type
profileVersion Profile version. Format: “majorRevision.minorRevision.bugFixRevision”
profileClass Profile/device class
colourSpace Colourspace
profileConnectionSpace Profile connection space
dateTimeString Date / time string. Format: “YYYY/MM/DD, h:m:s”
profileSignature Profile signature
primaryPlatform Primary platform
embeddedProfile Flag that indicates whether profile is embedded in file (“yes”/”no”)
profileCannotBeUsedIndependently Flag that indicates whether profile cannot (!) be used independently from the embedded colour data (“yes”/”no”)
deviceManufacturer Identifies a device manufacturer
deviceModel Identifies a device model
transparency Indicates whether device medium is reflective or transparent
glossiness Indicates whether device medium is glossy or matte
polarity Indicates whether device medium is positive or negative
colour Indicates whether device medium is colour or black and white
renderingIntent Rendering intent
connectionSpaceIlluminantX Profile connection space illuminant X
connectionSpaceIlluminantY Profile connection space illuminant Y
connectionSpaceIlluminantZ Profile connection space illuminant Z
profileCreator Identifies creator of profile
profileID Profile checksum (as hexadecimal string)
tag* Signature of profile tag (repeated for each tag in the profile)
description Profile description (extracted from ‘desc’ tag)

### 6.7.4 Tests

Test name True if
methIsValid meth equals 1 (enumerated colourspace) or 2 (restricted ICC profile)
precIsValid prec equals 0
approxIsValid approx equals 0
enumCSIsValid (if meth equals “Enumerated”) enumCS equals 16 (“sRGB”), 17 (“greyscale”) or 18 (“sYCC”)
iccSizeIsValid (if meth equals “Restricted ICC”) Actual size of embedded ICC profile equals value of profileSize field in ICC header
iccPermittedProfileClass (if meth equals “Restricted ICC”) ICC profile class is “input device” or “display device”5
iccNoLUTBasedProfile (if meth equals “Restricted ICC”) ICC profile type is not N-component LUT based (which is not allowed in JP2)

## 6.8 Palette box (child of JP2 Header box)

This (optional) box specifies the palette which maps a single component in index space to a multiple-component image.

paletteBox

### 6.8.2 Reported properties

Property Description
nE Number of entries in the table
nPC Number of palette columns
bSign* Indicates whether values created by this palette column are signed or unsigned (repeated for each column)
bDepth* Bit depth of values created by this palette column (repeated for each column)
cP** Value for this entry (repeated for each column, and for the number of entries)

### 6.8.3 Tests

Test name True if
nEIsValid nE is within range [0,1024]
nPCIsValid nPC is within range [1,255]
bDepthIsValid* bDepth is within range [1,38] (repeated for each column)

## 6.9 Component Mapping box (child of JP2 Header box)

This (optional) box specifies the mapping between a palette and codestream components.

### 6.9.1 Element name

componentMappingBox

### 6.9.2 Reported properties

Property Description
cMP* Component index (repeated for each channel)
mTyp* Specifies how channel is generated from codestream component (repeated for each channel)
pCol* Palette component index (repeated for each channel)

### 6.9.3 Tests

Test name True if
cMPIsValid cMP is within range [0,16384]
mTypIsValid* mTyp is within range [0,1] (repeated for each channel)
pColIsValid* pCol is 0 if mTyp is 0 (repeated for each channel)

## 6.10 Channel Definition box (child of JP2 Header box)

This (optional) box specifies the type and ordering of the components within the codestream, as well as those created by the application of a palette.

### 6.10.1 Element name

channelDefinitionBox

### 6.10.2 Reported properties

Property Description
n Number of channel descriptions
cN* Channel index (repeated for each channel)
cTyp* Channel type (repeated for each channel)
cAssoc* Channel association (repeated for each channel)

### 6.10.3 Tests

Test name True if
nIsValid n is within range [1, 65535]
boxLengthIsValid (Size of box – 2) / equals 6*n
cNIsValid* cN is within range [0, 65535] (repeated for each channel)
cTypIsValid* cType is within range [0, 65535] (repeated for each channel)
cAssocIsValid* cAssoc is within range [0, 65535] (repeated for each channel)

## 6.11 Resolution box (child of JP2 Header box, superbox)

This (optional) box contains the grid resolution.

resolutionBox

### 6.11.2 Reported properties

Since this is a superbox, it contains one or two child boxes. These are represented as child elements in the properties tree:

Child element Description
captureResolutionBox (section 6.12) Properties from Capture Resolution box
displayResolutionBox (section 6.13) Properties from Default Display Resolution box

### 6.11.3 Tests

Test name True if
containsCaptureOrDisplayResolutionBox Box contains either a Capture Resolution box or a Default Display Resolution box, or both
noMoreThanOneCaptureResolutionBox Box contains no more than one Capture Resolution box
noMoreThanOneDisplayResolutionBox Box contains no more than one Default Display Resolution box

## 6.12 Capture Resolution box (child of Resolution box)

This (optional) box specifies the grid resolution at which the image was captured.

### 6.12.1 Element name

captureResolutionBox

### 6.12.2 Reported properties

Resolution information in this box is stored as a set of vertical and horizontal numerators, denominators and exponents. Jpylyzer also reports the corresponding grid resolutions in pixels per meter and pixels per inch, which are calculated from these values.

Property Description
vRcN Vertical grid resolution numerator
vRcD Vertical grid resolution denominator
hRcN Horizontal grid resolution numerator
hRcD Horizontal grid resolution denominator
vRcE Vertical grid resolution exponent
hRcE Horizontal grid resolution exponent
vRescInPixelsPerMeter Vertical grid resolution, expressed in pixels per meter6
hRescInPixelsPerMeter Horizontal grid resolution, expressed in pixels per meter7
vRescInPixelsPerInch Vertical grid resolution, expressed in pixels per inch8
hRescInPixelsPerInch Horizontal grid resolution, expressed in pixels per inch9

### 6.12.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box contents equals 10 bytes
vRcNIsValid vRcN is within range [1,65535]
vRcDIsValid vRcD is within range [1,65535]
hRcNIsValid hRcN is within range [1,65535]
hRcDIsValid hRcD is within range [1,65535]
vRcEIsValid vRcE is within range [-127,128]
hRcEIsValid hRcE is within range [-127,128]

## 6.13 Default Display Resolution box (child of Resolution box)

This (optional) box specifies the default grid resolution at which the image should be displayed.

### 6.13.1 Element name

displayResolutionBox

### 6.13.2 Reported properties

Resolution information in this box is stored as a set of vertical and horizontal numerators, denominators and exponents. Jpylyzer also reports the corresponding grid resolutions in pixels per meter and pixels per inch, which are calculated from these values.

Property Description
vRdN Vertical grid resolution numerator
vRdD Vertical grid resolution denominator
hRdN Horizontal grid resolution numerator
hRdD Horizontal grid resolution denominator
vRdE Vertical grid resolution exponent
hRdE Horizontal grid resolution exponent
vResdInPixelsPerMeter Vertical grid resolution, expressed in pixels per meter10
hResdInPixelsPerMeter Horizontal grid resolution, expressed in pixels per meter11
vResdInPixelsPerInch Vertical grid resolution, expressed in pixels per inch12
hResdInPixelsPerInch Horizontal grid resolution, expressed in pixels per inch13

### 6.13.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box contents equals 10 bytes
vRdNIsValid vRdN is within range [1,65535]
vRdDIsValid vRdD is within range [1,65535]
hRdNIsValid hRdN is within range [1,65535]
hRdDIsValid hRdD is within range [1,65535]
vRdEIsValid vRdE is within range [-127,128]
hRdEIsValid hRdE is within range [-127,128]

## 6.14 Contiguous Codestream box

This box contains the codestream. See chapter 7.

## 6.15 Intellectual Property box

This (optional) box contains intellectual property information about the image. The JP2 format specification (ISO/IEC 15444-1) does not provide any specific information about this box, other than stating that “the definition of the format of [its] contents […] is reserved for ISO”. As a result, jpylyzer does not currently include a validator function for this box, which is now simply ignored. Jpylyzer will display a user warning message in that case.

## 6.16 XML box

This (optional) box contains XML formatted information.

xmlBox

### 6.16.2 Reported properties

If the contents of this box are well-formed XML (see ‘tests’ below), the ‘xmlBox’ element in the properties tree will contain the contents of the XML box. Note that, depending on the character encoding of the original XML, it may contain characters that are not allowed in the encoding that is used for jpylyzer’s output. Any such characters will be represented by numerical entity references in the output. If the box contents are not well-formed XML, no properties are reported for this box.

### 6.16.3 Tests

Test name True if
containsWellformedXML Contents of box are parsable, well-formed XML

Note that jpylyzer does not check whether the XML is valid, as this is not required by the standard. Besides, doing so would make jpylyzer significantly slower for XML that contains references to external schemas and DTDs.

## 6.17 UUID box

This (optional) box contains additional (binary) information, which may be vendor-specific. Some applications (e.g. Kakadu and ExifTool) also use this box for storing XMP metadata (see Section 1.1.4 in Part 3 of the XMP specification14).

uuidBox

### 6.17.2 Reported properties

If the value of uuid indicates the presence of XMP metadata and the contents of this box are well-formed XML, (see ‘tests’ below), the ‘uuidBox’ element in the properties tree will contain the XMP data. Note that, depending on the character encoding of the original XML, it may contain characters that are not allowed in the encoding that is used for jpylyzer’s output. Any such characters will be represented by numerical entity references in the output. In all other cases, the ‘uuidBox’ element will contain a standard string representation the of UUID.

Property Description
uuid Standard string representation of UUID (only if uuid has value other than be7acfcb-97a9-42e8-9c71-999491e3afac). For an explanation of UUIDs see e.g. Leach et al., 2005.
XMP data XMP metadata (only if uuid has value be7acfcb-97a9-42e8-9c71-999491e3afac)

Note that except for the XMP case, jpylyzer will not be able to report any information on the actual contents of this box, since it is defined outside of the scope of JPEG 2000.

### 6.17.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box contents is greater than 16 bytes
containsWellformedXML Contents of box are parsable, well-formed XML (this test is only performed if uuid has value be7acfcb-97a9-42e8-9c71-999491e3afac)

## 6.18 UUID Info box (superbox)

This (optional) box contains additional information associated with a UUID.

uuidInfoBox

### 6.18.2 Reported properties

This is a superbox which contains two child boxes. These are represented as child elements in the properties tree:

Child element Description
uuidListBox (section 6.19) Properties from UUID List box
urlBox (section 6.20) Properties from Data Entry URL box

### 6.18.3 Tests

Test name True if
containsOneListBox Box contains exactly one UUID List box
containsOneURLBox Box contains exactly one Data Entry URL box

## 6.19 UUID List box (child of UUID Info box)

This (optional) box specifies a list of UUIDs.

uuidListBox

### 6.19.2 Reported properties

Property Description
nU Number of UUIDs
uuid* Standard string representation of UUID (repeated nU times)

### 6.19.3 Tests

Test name True if
boxLengthIsValid Size of box equals nU * 16 + 2

## 6.20 Data Entry URL box (child of UUID Info box)

This (optional) box specifies a URL.

urlBox

### 6.20.2 Reported properties

Property Description
version Version number
loc Location, which specifies a URL of the additional information associated with the UUIDs in the UUID List box that resides in the same UUID Info box

### 6.20.3 Tests

Test name True if
flagIsValid Three bytes that make up “flag” field equal 0x00 00 00 (‘flag’ is not reported to output because it only contains null bytes)
locIsUTF8 Location (URL) can be decoded to UTF-8
locHasNullTerminator Location (URL) is a null-terminated string

## 6.21 Unknown box

An image may contain boxes that are not defined by ISO/IEC 15444-1. Although jpylyzer ignores such boxes, it will report some minimal info that will allow interested users to identify them to a limited extent.

unknownBox

### 6.21.2 Reported properties

Property Description
boxType Four-character text string that specifies the type of information that is found in this box (corresponds to TBox in section I.4 of ISO/IEC 15444-1).

## 6.22 Top-level tests and properties

This section describes the tests and output for the top file level.

properties

### 6.22.2 Reported properties

The metrics that are listed here are not ‘properties’ in a strict sense; instead they are secondary or derived metrics that are calculated by combining information from different parts / boxes of the file.

Property Description
compressionRatio Compression ratio

The compression ratio is calculated as the ratio between the size of the uncompressed image data and the actual file size:

$\mathrm{compressionRatio}=\frac{\mathrm{sizeUncompressed}}{\mathrm{sizeCompressed}}$

Here, sizeCompressed is simply the file size (fileSizeInBytes in output file’s ‘fileInfo’ element). The uncompressed size (in bytes) can be calculated by multiplying the number of bytes per pixel by the total number of pixels:

$\mathrm{sizeUncompressed}=\frac{1}{8}\sum _{i=1}^{\mathrm{nC}}{\mathrm{bPCDepth}}_{i}•\mathrm{height}•\mathrm{width}$

With:

nC
number of image components (from Image Header box)
i
component index
bPCDepthi
bits per component for component i (from Image Header box or Bits Per Component box)
height
image height (from Image Header box)
width
image width (from Image Header box)

In addition, the root of the properties tree contains the elements for all top-level boxes:

Child element Description
signatureBox (section 6.2) Properties from JPEG 2000 Signature box
fileTypeBox (section 6.3) Properties from File Type box
contiguousCodestreamBox (chapter 7) Properties from Contiguous Codestream box
intellectualPropertyBox (section 6.15) Properties from Intellectual Property box (optional)
xmlBox (section 6.16) Properties from XML box (optional)
uuidBox (section 6.17) Properties from UUID box (optional)
uuidInfoBox (section 6.18) Properties from UUID Info box (optional)

### 6.22.3 Tests

The tests that jpylyzer performs at the root level fall in either of the following two categories:

1. Tests for the presence of required top-level boxes, the order in which they appear and restrictions on the number of instances for specific boxes

2. Tests for consistency of information in different parts of the file. In particular, a lot of the information in the Image Header box is redundant with information in the codestream header, and jpylyzer performs a number of tests to verify the consistency between these two.

Test name True if
containsSignatureBox File root contains a JPEG 2000 Signature box
containsFileTypeBox File root contains a File Type box
containsContiguousCodestreamBox File root contains a Contiguous Codestream box
containsIntellectualPropertyBox File root contains an Intellectual Property box, which is required if iPR field in Image Header Box equals 1 (test is skipped otherwise)
firstBoxIsSignatureBox First box is JPEG 2000 Signature box
secondBoxIsFileTypeBox Second box is File Type box
locationJP2HeaderBoxIsValid JP2 Header box is located after File Type Box and before (first) Contiguous Codestream box
noMoreThanOneSignatureBox File root contains no more than one JPEG 2000 Signature box
noMoreThanOneFileTypeBox File root contains no more than one File Type box
heightConsistentWithSIZ Value of height from Image Header Box equals ysiz –yOsiz from codestream SIZ header
widthConsistentWithSIZ Value of width from Image Header Box equals xsizxOsiz from codestream SIZ header
nCConsistentWithSIZ Value of nC from Image Header Box equals csiz from codestream SIZ header
bPCSignConsistentWithSIZ Values of bPCSign from Image Header box (or Bits Per Component box) are equal to corresponding ssizSign values from codestream SIZ header
bPCDepthConsistentWithSIZ Values of bPCDepth from Image Header box (or Bits Per Component box) are equal to corresponding ssizDepth values from codestream SIZ header

# 7 Contiguous Codestream box

## 7.1 General codestream structure

The Contiguous Codestream box holds the JPEG 2000 codestream, which contains the actual image data in a JP2.

### 7.1.1 Markers and marker segments

A codestream is made up of a number of functional entities which are called markers and marker segments. A marker is essentially a 2-byte delimiter that delineates the start or end position of a functional entity. A marker segment is the combination of a marker and a set of associated parameters (segment parameters). However, not every marker has any associated parameters.

### 7.1.2 General structure of the codestream

The codestream is made up of a number of components. The Figure below gives an overview.

From top to bottom, the Figure shows the following components:

1. A start of codestream (SOC) marker, which indicates the start of the codestream

2. A main codestream header (which includes a number of header marker segments)

3. A sequence of one or more tile parts. Each tile part consists of the following components:

1. A start of tile-part (SOT) marker segment, which indicates the start of a tile part, and which also contains index information of the tile part and its associated tile

2. Optionally this may be followed by one or more additional tile-part header marker segments

3. A start of data (SOD) marker that indicates the start of the bitstream for the current tile part

4. The bitstream

4. An ‘end of codestream’ (EOC) marker that indicates the end of the codestream.

## 7.2 Limitations of codestream validation

It is important to stress here that jpylyzer currently doesn’t support the full set of marker segments that can occur in a codestream. As a result, the validation of codestreams is somewhat limited. These limitations are discussed in this section.

Annex A of ISO/IEC 15444-1 lists a total of 13 marker segments that can occur in the main codestream header. Most of these are optional. The current version of jpylyzer only offers full support (i.e. reads and validates) for the following main header marker segments (which includes all the required ones):

• Start of codestream (SOC) marker segment (required)

• Image and tile size (SIZ) marker segment (required)

• Coding style default (COD) marker segment (required)

• Quantization default (QCD) marker segment (required)

• Comment (COM) marker segment (optional)

In addition the codestream header may also contain any of the following marker segments, which are all optional:

• Coding style component (COC) marker segment (optional)*

• Region-of-interest (RGN) marker segment (optional) *

• Quantization component (QCC) marker segment (optional) *

• Progression order change (POC) marker segment (optional) *

• Packet length, main header (PLM) marker segment (optional) *

• Tile-part lengths (TLM) marker segment (optional) *

• Component registration (CRG) marker segment (optional) *

The above marker segments (which are marked with an asterisk) are only minimally supported at this stage: if jpylyzer encounters any of them, it will include the corresponding element in the properties element of the output. However, jpylyzer currently does not analyse the contents of these marker segments, which means that the respective elements in the output will be empty.

### 7.2.2 Tile parts

The tile part validation has similar limitations. The standard lists 11 marker segments that can occur in the tile part header. Currently, jpylyzer only fully supports the following ones:

• Start of tile part (SOT) marker segment (required)

• Coding style default (COD) marker segment (optional)

• Quantization default (QCD) marker segment (optional)

• Comment (COM) marker segment (optional)

• Start of data (SOD) marker segment (required)

In addition the following optional marker segments may also occur:

• Coding style component (COC) marker segment (optional)*

• Region-of-interest (RGN) marker segment (optional) *

• Quantization component (QCC) marker segment (optional) *

• Progression order change (POC) marker segment (optional) *

• Packet length, tile-part header (PLT) marker segment (optional) *

These marker segments (which are marked with an asterisk) are only minimally supported at this stage: if jpylyzer encounters any of them, it will include the corresponding element in the properties element of the output. However, jpylyzer currently does not analyse their contents, and the respective elements in the output will be empty.

### 7.2.3 Bit streams

In addition to the above limitations, jpylyzer can not be used to establish whether the data in the bitstream are correct (this would require decoding the compressed image data, which is completely out of jpylyzer’s scope)15. As a result, if jpylyzer is used as part of a quality assurance workflow, it is recommended to also include an additional check on the image contents16. Also, jpylyzer does not perform any checks on marker segments within the bit-stream: start-of packet (SOP) and end-of-packet (EPH) markers.

### 7.2.4 Detection of incomplete or truncated codestreams

A JP2’s tile part header contains information that makes it possible to detect incomplete and truncated codestreams in most cases. Depending on the encoder software used, this method may fail for images that only contain one single tile part (i.e. images that do not contain tiling).

### 7.2.5 Current limitations of comment extraction

Both the codestream header and the tile part header can contain comment marker segments, which are used for embedding arbitrary binary data or text. Jpylyzer will extract the contents of any comments that are text.

## 7.3 Structure of reported output

The Figure below illustrates the structure of jpylyzer’s codestream-level output.

At the top level, the SIZ, COD, QCD and COM marker segments are each represented as individual sub elements. The tile part properties are nested in a tileParts element, where each individual tile part is represented as a separate tilePart sub element.

## 7.4 Contiguous Codestream box

### 7.4.1 Element name

contiguousCodestreamBox

### 7.4.2 Reported properties

The reported properties for this box are organised into a number groups, which are represented as child elements in the properties tree:

Child element Description
siz (section 7.5) Properties from the image and tile size (SIZ) marker segment (codestream main header)
cod (section 7.6) Properties from the coding style default (COD) marker segment (codestream main header)
qcd (section 7.7) Properties from the quantization default (QCD) marker segment (codestream main header)
com (section 7.8) Properties from the (optional) comment (COM) marker segment (codestream main header)
tileParts (section 7.9) Properties from individual tile parts

### 7.4.3 Tests

Test name True if
codestreamStartsWithSOCMarker First 2 bytes in codestream constitute a start of codestream (SOC) marker segment
foundSIZMarker Second marker segment in codestream is image and tile size (SIZ) marker segment
foundCODMarker Codestream main header contains coding style default (COD) marker segment
foundQCDMarker Codestream main header contains quantization default (QCD) marker segment
quantizationConsistentWithLevels Values of quantization parameters from QCD marker segment are consistent with levels from COD marker segment17
foundExpectedNumberOfTiles Number of encountered tiles is consistent with expected number of tiles (as calculated from SIZ marker, see section 7.5)
foundExpectedNumberOfTileParts For all tiles, number of encountered tile parts is consistent with expected number of tile parts (values of tnsot from SOT marker, see section 7.10)
foundEOCMarker Last 2 bytes in codestream constitute an end of codestream (EOC) marker segment

## 7.5 Image and tile size (SIZ) marker segment (child of Contiguous Codestream box)

siz

### 7.5.2 Reported properties

Property Description
lsiz Length of SIZ marker segment in bytes
rsiz Decoder capabilities
xsiz Width of reference grid
ysiz Heigth of reference grid
xOsiz Horizontal offset from origin of reference grid to left of image area
yOsiz Vertical offset from origin of reference grid to top of image area
xTsiz Width of one reference tile with respect to the reference grid
yTsiz Height of one reference tile with respect to the reference grid
xTOsiz Horizontal offset from origin of reference grid to left side of first tile
yTOsiz Vertical offset from origin of reference grid to top side of first tile
numberOfTiles Number of tiles18
csiz Number of components
ssizSign* Indicates whether image component is signed or unsigned (repeated for each component)
ssizDepth* Number of bits for this component (repeated for each component)
xRsiz* Horizontal separation of sample of this component with respect to reference grid (repeated for each component)
yRsiz* Vertical separation of sample of this component with respect to reference grid (repeated for each component)

### 7.5.3 Tests

Test name True if
lsizIsValid lsiz is within range [41,49190]
rsizIsValid rsiz equals 0 (“ISO/IEC 15444-1”), 1 (“Profile 0”) or 2 (“Profile 1”)
xsizIsValid xsiz is within range [1,232 - 1]
ysizIsValid ysiz is within range [1,232 - 1]
xOsizIsValid xOsiz is within range [0,232 - 2]
yOsizIsValid yOsiz is within range [0,232 - 2]
xTsizIsValid xTsiz is within range [1,232 - 1]
yTsizIsValid yTsiz is within range [1,232 - 1]
xTOsizIsValid xTOsiz is within range [0,232 - 2]
yTOsizIsValid yTOsiz is within range [0,232 - 2]
csizIsValid csiz is within range [1,16384]
lsizConsistentWithCsiz lsiz equals 38 + 3*csiz
ssizIsValid* ssizDepth is within range [1,38] (repeated for each component)
xRsizIsValid* xRsiz is within range [1,255] (repeated for each component)
yRsizIsValid* yRsiz is within range [1,255] (repeated for each component)

## 7.6 Coding style default (COD) marker segment

cod

### 7.6.2 Reported properties

Property Description
lcod Length of COD marker segment in bytes
precincts Indicates use of precincts (“yes”/“no”)
sop Indicates use of start of packet marker segments (“yes”/“no”)
eph Indicates use of end of packet marker segments (“yes”/“no”)
order Progression order
layers Number of layers
multipleComponentTransformation Indicates use of multiple component transformation (“yes”/“no”)
levels Number of decomposition levels
codeBlockWidth Code block width
codeBlockHeight Code block height
codingBypass Indicates use of coding bypass (“yes”/“no”)
resetOnBoundaries Indicates reset of context probabilities on coding pass boundaries (“yes”/“no”)
termOnEachPass Indicates termination on each coding pass (“yes”/“no”)
vertCausalContext Indicates vertically causal context (“yes”/“no”)
predTermination Indicates predictable termination (“yes”/“no”)
segmentationSymbols Indicates use of segmentation symbols (“yes”/“no”)
transformation Wavelet transformation: “9-7 irreversible” or “5-3 reversible”
precinctSizeX* Precinct width (repeated for each resolution level; order: low to high) (only if precincts is “yes”)
precinctSizeY* Precinct heigth (repeated for each resolution level; order: low to high) (only if precincts is “yes”)

### 7.6.3 Tests

Test name True if
lcodIsValid lcod is within range [12,45]
orderIsValid order equals 0 (“LRCP”), 1 (“RLCP”), 2 (“RPCL”), 3 (“PCRL”) or 4 (“CPRL”)
layersIsValid layers is within range [1,65535]
multipleComponentTransformation IsValid
levelsIsValid levels is within range [0,32]
lcodConsistentWithLevelsPrecincts lcod equals 12 (precincts = “no”) or lcod equals 13 + levels (precincts = “yes”)
codeBlockWidthExponentIsValid codeBlockWidthExponent is within range [2,10]
codeBlockHeightExponentIsValid codeBlockHeightExponent is within range [2,10]
sumHeightWidthExponentIsValid codeBlockWidthExponent + codeBlockHeightExponent ≤ 12
precinctSizeXIsValid* precinctSizeX ≥ 2 (except lowest resolution level) (repeated for each resolution level; order: low to high) (only if precincts is “yes”)
precinctSizeYIsValid* precinctSizeY ≥ 2 (except lowest resolution level) (repeated for each resolution level; order: low to high) (only if precincts is “yes”)

## 7.7 Quantization default (QCD) marker segment

qcd

### 7.7.2 Reported properties

Property Description
lqcd Length of QCD marker segment in bytes
qStyle Quantization style for all components
guardBits Number of guard bits
epsilon* - If qStyle equals 0 (“no quantization”): Epsilon exponent in Eq E-5 of ISO/IEC 15444-1 (repeated for all decomposition levels; order: low to high)
- If qStyle equals 1 (“scalar derived”): Epsilon exponent in Eq E-3 of ISO/IEC 15444-1
- If qStyle equals 2 (“scalar expounded”): Epsilon exponent in Eq E-3 of ISO/IEC 15444-1 (repeated for all decomposition levels; order: low to high)
mu* - If qStyle equals 1 (“scalar derived”): mu constant in Eq E-3 of ISO/IEC 15444-1
- if qStyle equals 2 (“scalar expounded”) : mu constant in Eq E-3 of ISO/IEC 15444-1 (repeated for all decomposition levels; order: low to high)

### 7.7.3 Tests

Test name True if
lqcdIsValid lqcd is within range [4,197]
qStyleIsValid qStyle equals 0 (“no quantization”), 1 (“scalar derived”), or 2 (“scalar expounded”)

## 7.8 Comment (COM) marker segment

com

### 7.8.2 Reported properties

Property Description
lcom Length of COM marker segment in bytes
rcom Registration value of marker segment (indicates whether this comment contains binary data or text)
comment Embedded comment as text (only if rcom = 1 )

### 7.8.3 Tests

Test name True if
lcomIsValid lqcd is within range [5,65535]
rcomIsValid rcom equals 0 (“binary”) or 1 (“ISO/IEC 8859-15 (Latin”))
commentIsValid Comment is valid ISO/IEC8859-15 and does not contain control characters, other than tab, newline or carriage return

## 7.9 Tile part (child of Contiguous Codestream box)

Tile-part level properties and tests. This is not a box or a marker segment!

### 7.9.1 Element name

tilePart (child of tileParts)

### 7.9.2 Reported properties

Each tile part element can contain a number of child elements:

Child element Description
sot (section 7.10) Properties from start of tile (SOT) marker segment
cod (section 7.6) Properties from the (optional) coding style default (COD) marker segment (tile part header)
qcd (section 7.7) Properties from the (optional) quantization default (QCD) marker segment (tile part header)
com (section 7.8) Properties from the (optional) comment (COM) marker segment (tile part header)

### 7.9.3 Tests

Test name True if
foundNextTilePartOrEOC Tile part start offset + tilePartLength points to either start of new tile or EOC marker (useful for detecting within-codestream byte corruption)
foundSODMarker Last marker segment of tile part is a start-of-data (SOD) marker

## 7.10 Start of tile part (SOT) marker segment (child of tile part)

sot

### 7.10.2 Reported properties

Property Description
lsot Length of SOT marker segment in bytes
isot Tile index
psot Length of tile part
tpsot Tile part index
tnsot Number of tile-parts of a tile in the codestream (value of 0 indicates that number of tile-parts of tile in the codestream is not defined in current header)

### 7.10.3 Tests

Test name True if
lsotIsValid lsot equals 10
isotIsValid isot is within range [0,65534]
psotIsValid psot is not within range [1,13]
tpsotIsValid tpsot is within range [0,254]

The following marker segments are only minimally supported: jpylyzer will report their presence in the properties element, but it does not perform any further tests or analyses. This may change in upcoming versions of the software.

## 7.11 Coding style component (COC) marker segment

coc

### 7.11.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.11.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.12 Region-of-interest (RGN) marker segment

rgn

### 7.12.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.12.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.13 Quantization component (QCC) marker segment

qcc

### 7.13.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.13.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.14 Progression order change (POC) marker segment

poc

### 7.14.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.14.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.15 Packet length, main header (PLM) marker segment

plm

### 7.15.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.15.3 Tests

Test name True if

ppm

### 7.16.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.16.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.17 Tile-part lengths (TLM) marker segment

tlm

### 7.17.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.17.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.18 Component registration (CRG) marker segment

crg

### 7.18.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.18.3 Tests

Test name True if

## 7.19 Packet length, tile-part header (PLT) marker segment

plt

### 7.19.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.19.3 Tests

Test name True if

ppt

### 7.20.2 Reported properties

Property Description

### 7.20.3 Tests

Test name True if

# 8 References

ICC. Specification ICC.1:1998-09 – File Format for Color Profiles. International Color Consortium, 1998. http://www.color.org/ICC-1_1998-09.pdf.

ISO/IEC. Information technology — JPEG 2000 image coding system: Core coding system. ISO/IEC 15444-1, Second edition. Geneva: ISO/IEC, 2004a. http://www.jpeg.org/public/15444-1annexi.pdf (“Annex I: JP2 file format syntax” only).

ISO/IEC. Information technology — JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions. ISO/IEC 15444-2, First edition. Geneva: ISO/IEC, 2004b. http://www.jpeg.org/public/15444-2annexm.pdf (“Annex M: JPX extended file format syntax” only).

Leach, P., Mealling, M. & Salz, R. A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN namespace. Memo, IETF. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122.html.

1. The jpylyzer binaries were created using the PyInstaller package: http://www.pyinstaller.org/

2. Note that jpylyzer versions 1.8 and earlier returned a formatted XML string instead of an element object!

3. Note that jpylyzer versions 1.4 and earlier used the verbose output format by default. This behaviour has changed in version 1.5 onwards, as the lengthy output turned out to be slightly confusing to some users.

4. The “Any ICC” method is defined in ISO/IEC 15444-2 (the JPX format), and is not allowed in JP2. However, jpylyzer offers limited support for JPX here by also reporting the properties of ICC profiles that were embedded using this method. Note that any file that uses this method will fail the “methIsValid” test (and thereby the validation).

5. Originally ISO/IEC 15444-1 only allowed “input device” profiles. Support of “display device” profiles was added through an amendment to the standard in 2013. The behaviour of jpylyzer is consistent with this amendment.

6. Calculated as: $\frac{\mathrm{vRcN}}{\mathrm{vRcD}}•{10}^{\mathrm{vRcE}}$

7. Calculated as: $\frac{\mathrm{hRcN}}{\mathrm{hRcD}}•{10}^{\mathrm{hRcE}}$

8. Calculated as: $\mathrm{vRescInPixelsPerMeter}•25.4•{10}^{\mathrm{-3}}$

9. Calculated as: $\mathrm{hRescInPixelsPerMeter}•25.4•{10}^{\mathrm{-3}}$

10. Calculated as: $\frac{\mathrm{vRdN}}{\mathrm{vRdD}}•{10}^{\mathrm{vRdE}}$

11. Calculated as: $\frac{\mathrm{hRdN}}{\mathrm{hRdD}}•{10}^{\mathrm{hRdE}}$

12. Calculated as: $\mathrm{vResdInPixelsPerMeter}•25.4•{10}^{\mathrm{-3}}$

13. Calculated as: $\mathrm{hResdInPixelsPerMeter}•25.4•{10}^{\mathrm{-3}}$

14. However, support for start of packet (SOP) and end of packet (EPH) markers may be included in future versions.

15. For example, in a TIFF to JP2 conversion workflow one could include a pixel-by-pixel comparison of the values in the TIFF and the JP2.

16. The consistency check verifies if the length of the quantization default marker segment (lqcd from qcd) is consistent with the quantization style (qStyle from qcd) and the number of decomposition levels (levels from cod). They are consistent if the following equation is true:

17. Calculated as: $\mathrm{numberOfTiles}=\left[\frac{\mathrm{xsiz}-\mathrm{xOsiz}}{\mathrm{xTsiz}}\right]•\left[\frac{\mathrm{ysiz}-\mathrm{yOsiz}}{\mathrm{yTsiz}}\right]$